SELECT keyword

SELECT allows you to specify list of columns and expressions to be selected and evaluated from a table.

Syntax#

Flow chart showing the syntax of the SELECT keyword

tip

The TABLE can either be a in your database (in which case you would pass the table's name), or the result of a sub query.

Simple select#

All columns#

QuestDB supports SELECT * FROM tablename. When selecting all, you can also omit most of the statement and pass the table name.

The two examples below are equivalent

QuestDB dialect
ratings;
Traditional SQL equivalent
SELECT * FROM ratings;

Specific columns#

To select specific columns, replace * by the names of the columns you are interested in.

Example:

SELECT movieId, rating FROM ratings;

Arithmetic expressions#

SELECT is capable of evaluating multiple expressions and functions. You can mix comma separated lists of expressions with the column names you are selecting.

SELECT movieId, (100 - rating)*2, rating > 3.5 good
FROM ratings;

The result of rating > 3.5 is a boolean. The column will be named good and take values true or false.

Aliases#

Using aliases allow you to give expressions or column names of your choice. You can assign an alias to a column or an expression by writing the alias name you want after that expression

note

Alias names and column names must be unique.

SELECT movieId alias1, rating alias2
FROM ratings

Aggregation#

info

Supported aggregation functions are listed on the aggregation reference.

Aggregation by group#

QuestDB evaluates aggregation functions without need for traditional GROUP BY. Use a mix of column names and aggregation functions in a SELECT clause. You can have any number of discrete value columns and any number of aggregation functions.

QuestDB dialect
SELECT movieId, avg(rating), count()
FROM ratings;
Traditional SQL equivalent
SELECT movieId, avg(rating), count()
FROM ratings
GROUP BY movieId;

Aggregation arithmetic#

Aggregation functions can be used in arithmetic expressions. The following computes mid of rating values for every movie.

SELECT movieId, (min(rating) + max(rating))/2 mid, count() count
FROM ratings;
tip

Whenever possible, it is recommended to perform arithmetic outside of aggregation functions as this can have a dramatic impact on performance. For example, min(value/2) is going to execute considerably slower than min(value)/2 although both alternative will return the same result

Supported clauses#

QuestDB supports the following standard SQL clauses within SELECT statements.

CASE#

Conditional results based on expressions.

Syntax#

Flow chart showing the syntax of CASE

info

For more information, please refer to the CASE reference

CAST#

Convert values and expression between types.

Syntax#

Flow chart showing the syntax of the CAST keyword

info

For more information, please refer to the CAST reference

DISTINCT#

Returns distinct values of the specified column(s).

Syntax#

Flow chart showing the syntax of the DISTINCT keyword

info

For more information, please refer to the DISTINCT reference.

FILL#

Defines filling strategy for missing data in aggregation queries. This function complements SAMPLE BY queries.

Syntax#

Flow chart showing the syntax of the FILL keyword

info

For more information, please refer to the FILL reference.

JOIN#

Join tables based on a key or timestamp.

Syntax#

Flow chart showing the syntax of the JOIN keyword

info

For more information, please refer to the JOIN reference

LIMIT#

Specify the number and position of records returned by a query.

Syntax#

Flow chart showing the syntax of the LIMIT keyword

info

For more information, please refer to the LIMIT reference.

ORDER BY#

Orders the results of a query by one or several columns.

Syntax#

Flow chart showing the syntax of the ORDER BY keyword

info

For more information, please refer to the ORDER BY reference

UNION#

Combine the results of two or more select statements. Can include or ignore duplicates.

Syntax#

Flow chart showing the syntax of the UNION keyword

info

For more information, please refer to the UNION reference

WHERE#

Filters query results

Syntax#

Flow chart showing the syntax of the WHERE clause

info

QuestDB supports complex WHERE clauses along with type-specific searches. For more information, please refer to the WHERE reference. There are different syntaxes for text, numeric, or timestamp filters.

Additional time series clauses#

QuestDB augments SQL with the following clauses.

LATEST BY#

Retrieves the latest entry by timestamp for a given key or combination of keys This function requires a designated timestamp.

Syntax#

Flow chart showing the syntax of the LATEST BY keyword

info

For more information, please refer to the LATEST BY reference.

SAMPLE BY#

Aggregates time series data into homogeneous time chunks. For example daily average, monthly maximum etc. This function requires a designated timestamp.

Syntax#

Flow chart showing the syntax of the SAMPLE BY keyword

info

For more information, please refer to the SAMPLE BY reference.

TIMESTAMP#

Dynamically creates a designated timestamp on the output of a query. This allows to perform timestamp operations like SAMPLE BY or LATEST BY on tables which originally do not have a designated timestamp.

caution

The output query must be ordered by time. TIMESTAMP() does not check for order and using timestamp functions on unordered data may produce unexpected results.

Syntax#

Flow chart showing the syntax of the timestamp function

info

For more information, refer to the TIMESTAMP reference