MongoDB Time Series Benchmark and Review

MongoDB vs QuestDB

This article compares QuestDB with one of the most popular databases on the market, MongoDB. We look at the two databases in terms of benchmark performance and user experience.

Introduction to time-series databases#

Time-series data has gained popularity in recent years. It is used in a wide variety of industries and use cases. As a result, we have seen the emergence of new time-series databases, either purposefully built to handle time-series data, or as an additional functionality on top of a general-purpose database. Time series data is often processed with dedicated tooling. This is because handling this type of data has a few individual requirements:

  • Time series data is often continuously appended (streamed in) from sources such as market data providers, sensors or via message brokers such as Kafka.
  • The significance of data typically decreases over time. Older data is often less critical than newer one.
  • Recent data often needs to be processed and analyzed quickly, in real-time.

Based on these traits, the evaluation of a time-series database should cover the following characteristics:

  • High ingestion speed to process large amounts of data with high cardinality
  • Fast queries for data analysis "on the fly"
  • Ease of use with a well-known language that can facilitate time-series data manipulation
  • Data lifecycle strategies

Introduction to MongoDB and QuestDB#

Founded in 2009, MongoDB is an open-source, NoSQL, document-oriented database, subject to Server Side Public License (commercial license also available). It leads the ranking for document stores (Feb 2023) on DB-Engines. MongoDB is implemented in C++, with time-series data support added in version 5.0.

QuestDB is an open-source time-series database licensed under Apache License 2.0. It is designed for high throughput ingestion and fast SQL queries. It supports schema-agnostic ingestion using the InfluxDB line protocol, PostgreSQL wire protocol, and a REST API for bulk imports and exports.

A brief comparison based on DB-Engines:

NameMongoDBQuestDB
Primary database modelDocument storeTime Series DBMS
Overall rank#5#146
Other rank#1 Document stores#11 Time Series DBMS
Implementation languageC++Java (low latency, zero-GC), C++
SQL #Read-only SQL queries via the MongoDB Connector for BISQL-like query language
APIs and other access methodsproprietary protocol using JSONInfluxDB Line Protocol, Postgres Wire Protocol, HTTP, JDBC

MongoDB's default storage engine is WiredTiger, which integrates concepts from both the B-tree and the LSM-tree storage models.

Unlike a traditional RDBMS, data in MongoDB is not organized in tables, rows, and columns, but in Collections of Documents that contain fields. MongoDB supports Time-Series Collections, which are behind-the-scenes materialized views backed by an internal collection.

With its column-based storage engine, QuestDB stores data densely in arrays. It packs SIMD instructions that speed up queries by leveraging modern CPUs. The data is sorted by time natively and stored in time partitions. Those partitions are append-only and versioned. QuestDB only lifts the latest version of the partition in memory for any given time-based query, and the query performance does not slow down as more data is inserted.

Benchmark#

As usual, we use the industry standard Time Series Benchmark Suite (TSBS) as the benchmark tool. Unfortunately, TSBS upstream does not support MongoDB time series collections. Hence, we use the patch from this pull request.

The hardware we use for the benchmark is the following:

  • c6a.12xlarge EC2 instance with 48 vCPU and 96 GB RAM
  • 500GB gp3 volume configured for the maximum settings (16,000 IOPS and 1,000 MB/s throughput)

The software side of the benchmark is the following:

  • Ubuntu 22.04
  • MongoDB Community Edition 6.0.4 with the default configuration
  • QuestDB 7.0 with the default configuration

Ingestion#

To benchmark ingestion, we used the following commands:

$ ./tsbs_generate_data --use-case="cpu-only" --seed=123 --scale=4000 --timestamp-start="2016-01-01T00:00:00Z" --timestamp-end="2016-01-03T00:00:00Z" --log-interval="10s" --format="mongo" > /tmp/mongo_data
$ ./tsbs_load_mongo --file=/tmp/mongo_data --document-per-event=true --timeseries-collection=true --workers=10

Here, we use a cpu-only scenario with two days of CPU data from 4,000 simulated hosts. We use 10 client connections for the benchmark in both cases. In MongoDB, we also use time series collections, as recommended by MongoDB for time-series data.

The diagram below summarizes the results for ingestion performance:

Time Series Benchmarking Suite: Ingestion rate for MongoDB and QuestDB

To load just over 691 million metrics, MongoDB requires more than 2,000 seconds, while it takes less than 90 seconds for QuestDB; QuestDB is 24 times faster than MongoDB.

It is also worthwhile noting that MongoDB recommends ingesting measures in batches. For better performance, the measures are grouped by metadata rather than time. Otherwise, ingestion would be less efficient. Therefore, ingestion performance is dependent on metadata and sensitive to the order of the fields in the document. Insertion is completed in BSON format, a serialization format used to store documents and make remote procedure calls in MongoDB.

By contrast, QuestDB's ingestion is not affected by the order of metadata in a batch. This is due to QuestDB's column-based storage model. Ingesting data is less error-prone for developers.

Query performance#

QuestDB is designed for time-series data; as such, it is not surprising that QuestDB outperforms MongoDB for ingestion. However, query performance is equally important for time-series data analysis.

As part of the standard TSBS benchmark, we compare both databases for a few types of queries, which are popular for time-series data:

  • lastpoint: The last reading for each host
  • groupby-orderby-limit: The last 5 aggregate readings (across time) before a randomly chosen endpoint
  • high-cpu-all: All the readings where one metric is above a threshold across all hosts
  • double-groupby-1: Aggregate across both time and host, giving the average of 1 CPU metric per host per hour for 24 hours
  • single-groupby-1-8-1: Simple aggregate (MAX) on one metric for 8 hosts, every 5 mins for 1 hour
  • cpu-max-all-1: Aggregate across all CPU metrics per hour over 1 hour for a single host

Here are some sample commands to generate and run the queries:

$ ./tsbs_generate_queries --use-case="cpu-only" --seed=123 --scale=4000 --timestamp-start="2016-01-01T00:00:00Z" --timestamp-end="2016-01-03T00:00:00Z" --queries=1000 --query-type="lastpoint" --format="mongo" > /tmp/mongo_query_lastpoint
$ ./tsbs_run_queries_mongo --file=/tmp/mongo_query_lastpoint --workers=10

Again, we use 10 concurrent client connections for the comparison. We measure how much time each query takes, in milliseconds per query:

Query performance comparison displayed as a table.

Two conclusions from the benchmark:

  • MongoDB performs slightly better for simple aggregations (single-groupby-1-8-1 and cpu-max-all-1).
  • QuestDB outperforms MongoDB significantly for more complicated queries.

QuestDB's underperformance for simple aggregations may be partly explained by the fact that TSBS is not designed to use bind variables. Instead, it sends lots of unique queries making QuestDB's query cache redundant. Moreover, the query engine uses bytecode generation in these particular queries, so lots of one-off queries put some pressure on JVM metaspace.

For more complicated queries, QuestDB's better performance lies in its query engine: it takes advantage of a columnar data layout, SIMD instructions, and multi-threaded processing.

Ease of use#

Time-series data can provide great insight if you know what to look for and how to query the data to reveal otherwise hidden trends. Ideally, the database should encourage interactive exploration so developers can experiment with different query iterations effortlessly. Therefore, we will now compare both databases for their query language.

The query language for data aggregation#

MongoDB is NoSQL and supports the MongoDB query language (MQL), which is JavaScript-based and unique to MongoDB. The learning curve can be steep. MongoDB recently started to support SQL, but this is not the case for time-series queries.

Querying in QuestDB is done via standard SQL with time-series extensions.

Looking at MongoDB's documentation, we found a sample to calculate the total consumption of AC units per building per hour on a sample dataset:

var pipelineBuildingsSummary = [
// Calculate each unit's energy consumed over the last hour for each reading
{"$setWindowFields": {
"partitionBy": "$deviceID",
"sortBy": {"timestamp": 1
},
"output": {
"consumedKilowattHours": {
"$integral": { "input": "$powerKilowatts", "unit": "hour", },
"window": { "range": [-1, "current"], "unit": "hour", },
},
},
}},
// Sort each reading by unit/device and then by timestamp
{"$sort": { "deviceID": 1, "timestamp": 1, }},
// Group readings together for each hour for each device using
// the last calculated energy consumption field for each hour
{"$group": {
"_id": {
"deviceID": "$deviceID",
"date": { "$dateTrunc": { "date": "$timestamp", "unit": "hour", } }, },
"buildingID": {"$last": "$buildingID"},
"consumedKilowattHours": {"$last": "$consumedKilowattHours"},
}},
// Sum together the energy consumption for the whole building
// for each hour across all the units in the building
{"$group": {
"_id": {
"buildingID": "$buildingID",
"dayHour": {"$dateToString": {"format": "%Y-%m-%d %H", "date": "$_id.date"}}, },
"consumedKilowattHours": {"$sum": "$consumedKilowattHours"},
}},
// Sort the results by each building and then by each hourly summary
{"$sort": { "_id.buildingID": 1, "_id.dayHour": 1, }},
// Make the results more presentable with meaningful field names
{"$set": {
"buildingID": "$_id.buildingID",
"dayHour": "$_id.dayHour", "_id": "$$REMOVE",
}},
];

With QuestDB, the query syntax is shorter and simpler:

SELECT timestamp, buildingID, SUM(powerKilowats)
FROM device_readings
SAMPLE BY 1h ALIGN TO CALENDAR;

Any developer familiar with SQL should understand this query. The only part that needs an explanation is SAMPLE BY, which is specifically designed to aggregate large datasets based on a time unit.

In addition, QuestDB provides the FILL keyword, one of the many ways to identify and fill missing data, which is a common first step in data analysis:

SELECT timestamp, buildingID, SUM(powerKilowats)
FROM device_readings
SAMPLE BY 1h FILL(LINEAR) ALIGN TO CALENDAR;

MongoDB provides two aggregation operators, $densify and $fill, to complete similar tasks. However, they are not as straightforward as using SAMPLE BY. The operator $densify identifies missing data and fills it in, but it does not resample the dataset.

If you want to fill gaps and values, you would need to use a densify and then a fill aggregation, which would add about 20 extra lines of code to the pipeline.

Other considerations#

We have covered the two main factors for choosing the right time-series database: performance and usability. However, there are other aspects to consider when building a system with a time-series database (TSDB).

Lifecycle policies#

For most time-series data applications, the value of each data point diminishes over time. Therefore, we should also look at data lifecycle management as part of the database evaluation.

QuestDB offers the ability to detach partitions for cheaper storage and to reattach them later if required. In addition, the QuestDB engineering team is working on automating a feature for automating this process.

MongoDB allows auto-deletion of data. Once removed, data can only be recovered from a backup. In QuestDB, if you want to delete rather than keep older data for future use, you can invoke the DROP PARTITION statement periodically.

Ecosystem and support#

QuestDB is a younger database. However, QuestDB builds on the immensely popular SQL language, and is compatible with the Postgres wire protocol. In addition, QuestDB has a vibrant and supportive community: users get to interact with the engineering team building QuestDB.

MongoDB has an impressive ecosystem, and has been around for a long time. As a more mature product, MongoDB is the most popular Document store database.

Conclusion#

We have compared MongoDB and QuestDB, assessing performance and user experience. QuestDB ingests data 24 times faster, and most benchmarked queries perform better.

We believe in the simplicity of SQL to unlock insights from time-series data. Some of the SQL extensions that QuestDB offers, such as SAMPLE BY, can significantly reduce the complexity of queries and improve developer user experience.

We are pleased to see general-purpose databases such as MongoDB dip their toes into time-series data. We think that time-series data is unique enough to deserve a purpose build database, but this has to be weighed versus the complexity of adding another database to your stack.

If you are interested in how QuestDB performs compared to other OLAP and time-series databases, check out our benchmark articles.

Download QuestDB Open source under Apache 2.0. Blazing fast ingest. SQL analytics.