QuestDB uses a columnar storage model. Data is stored in tables with each column stored in its own file and its own native format. New data is appended to the bottom of each column to allow data to be organically retrieved in the same order that it was ingested.
QuestDB appends one column at a time and each one is updated using the same method. The tail of column file is mapped into the memory page in RAM and the column append is effectively a memory write at an address. Once the memory page is exhausted it is unmapped and a new page is mapped.
This method ensures minimum resource churn and consistent append latency.
Table columns are randomly accessible. Columns with fixed size data types are read by translating the record number into a file offset by a simple bit shift. The offset in the column file is then translated into an offset in a lazily mapped memory page, where the required value is read from.
QuestDB ensures table level isolation and consistency by applying table updates atomically. Updates to a table are applied in the context of a table transaction which is either committed or rolled back in an atomic operation. Queries that are concurrent with table updates are consistent in the sense that they will return data either as it was before or after the table transaction was committed — no intermediate uncommitted data will be shown in a query result.
To guarantee atomicity, each table maintains a
in a separate file. By convention, any table reader will never read more records
than the transaction count. This enables the isolation property: where
uncommitted data cannot be read. Since uncommitted data is appended directly to
the table, the transaction size is only limited by the available disk space.
Once all data is appended, QuestDB
commit() ensures that the transaction count
is updated atomically both in multi-threaded and multi-process environments. It
does so lock-free to ensure minimal impact on concurrent reads.
The consistency assurance of the data stored is limited to QuestDB auto-repairing abnormally terminated transactions. We do not yet support user-defined constraints, checks, and triggers.
By default, QuestDB relies on OS-level data durability for data files
leaving the OS to write dirty pages to disk. Data durability can also be
configured to invoke
fsync() for column files on each commit at the
cost of reduced ingestion throughput. Consider enabling the
sync commit mode
to improve data durability in the face of OS errors or power loss:
It is important to note that, as a result of the increase of
fsync() calls, CPU usage will increase especially with the frequent commit pattern.
The QuestDB storage model uses memory-mapped files and cross-process atomic transaction updates as a low-overhead method of inter-process communication. Data committed by one process can be instantaneously read by another process, either randomly (via queries) or incrementally (as a data queue). QuestDB provides a variety of reader implementations.