Backup and restore

This document provides practical details of using the point-in-time backup functionality in QuestDB along with filesystem backup as means to prevent data loss. Alongside backup details, this document describes how to restore from backups and hints for performing filesystem backups on common cloud providers.

QuestDB provides two strategies for creating backups:

  • Point-in-time (PIT) backup
  • Filesystem backup

Limitations#

There are some limitations of creating backups that users should note about the types of supported filesystems and what data is included in backups:

  • QuestDB officially supports EXT4 or XTS or any filesystem that supports mmap feature.
caution
  • A backup includes contents of the database up to the point of executing a backup. Any data inserted while a backup is underway is not stored as part of the backup.

  • Users can't use NFS or a similar networked filesystem directly with QuestDB, but users may copy a backup to such a filesystem after a backup has been made.

Creating a point-in-time backup#

When creating a point-in-time (PIT) backup in QuestDB, you can specify that the whole database or specific tables should be backed up. This process will create a backup in a directory specified by the user in the cairo.sql.backup.root configuration key. For more details on passing configuration in this manner, see the server configuration documentation.

/path/to/server.conf
cairo.sql.backup.root=/path/to/backup/dir

A backup can then be triggered via SQL command and the backup is complete as soon as the SQL query has finished executing:

-- backup whole database
BACKUP database;
-- backup a specific table
BACKUP table my_table;

Note that calling BACKUP TABLE <table_name> will only copy table data and metadata to the destination folder. This form of backup will not copy entire database configuration files required to perform a complete database restore.

Alternatively, the REST API can be used to execute the SQL for a database backup:

Backing up a database via curl
curl -G --data-urlencode "query=BACKUP database;" \
http://localhost:9000/exec

Creating a filesystem backup#

caution

To run a reliable filesystem backup, the QuestDB instance must be shut down or no write operations should running while disk backup is being created.

The most common way to perform cloud-native filesystem snapshots are described in the following resources, which rely on similar steps but have minor differences in terminology and services:

  • AWS - creating EBS snapshots
  • Azure - creating snapshots of a virtual hard disk
  • GCP - working with persistent disk snapshots

Restoring from a backup#

In order to restore a backup, the QuestDB executable must be provided with the directory location of an existing backup as the root directory. This can done via the -d flag as -d /path/to/backup when starting up QuestDB.

java -p /path/to/questdb-<version>.jar \
-m io.questdb/io.questdb.ServerMain \
-d /path/to/backup_directory

Users who are starting QuestDB via systemd or the official AWS AMI may refer to the systemd file for reference. To verify that database information has been successfully imported, check logs via journalctl -u questdb which will contain a list existing tables.

Docker instances may have a backup directory mounted to the root directory as follows:

docker run \
-p 9000:9000 -p 9009:9009 \
-p 8812:8812 -p 9003:9003 \
-v "/path/to/backup_directory:/root/.questdb/" questdb/questdb
info

The database backup must contain database metadata files and directories (db, config etc.). The contents of these directories is described in more detail in the root directory documentation.

Examples#

The following example sets up a cronjob which triggers a daily backup via REST API:

# this will add crontab record that will run trigger at backup every-day at 01:00 AM
# copy paste this into server terminal
crontab -l | { cat; echo "0 1 * * * /usr/bin/curl --silent -G --data-urlencode 'query=BACKUP database;' http://localhost:9000/exec &>/dev/null"; } | crontab -

This example shows how to compress a backup using the tar utility. An archive file questdb_backup.tar.gz will be created in the directory that the command is run:

tar -zcvf questdb_backup.tar.gz /path/to/backup

The backup file can be expanded using the same utility:

tar -xf questdb_backup.tar.gz