Ingestion from Kafka Overview
Ingesting data from Apache Kafka to QuestDB is a common use case. Possible strategies are as the following:
- QuestDB Kafka connector: The recommended strategy for connecting to Kafka using ILP and Kafka Connect.
- JDBC connector: A generic connector using Kafka Connect.
- Write a dedicated program to read data from Kafka and write to QuestDB.
- Use a stream processing engine.
Each strategy has different trade-offs. The rest of this page discusses each strategy and aims to guide advanced users.
#QuestDB Kafka connector
QuestDB has developed a QuestDB Kafka connector for Kafka. The connector is built on top of the Kafka Connect framework and uses the Influx Line Protocol (ILP) for communication with QuestDB. Kafka Connect handles concerns such as fault tolerance and serialization. It also provides facilities for message transformations, filtering, etc. ILP ensures operational simplicity and excellent performance: it can insert 100,000s rows per second.
This is the recommended strategy for most users.
Similar to the QuestDB Kafka connector, the JDBC connector also uses the Kafka Connect framework. However, instead of using a dedicated ILP, it relies on a generic JDBC binary and QuestDB PostgreSQL protocol compatibility. It requires objects in Kafka to have associated schema and overall it is more complex to set up and run. Compared to the QuestDB Kafka connector, the JDBC connector has significantly lower performance, but the following advantages:
- JDBC insertion allows higher consistency guarantees than the fire-and-forget ILP method used by the QuestDB Kafka connector.
- Various Kafka-as-a-Service providers often have the JDBC connector pre-packaged.
This strategy is recommended when the QuestDB Kafka connector cannot be used for some reason.
Writing a dedicated program reading from Kafka topics and writing to QuestDB tables offers great flexibility: The program can do arbitrary data transformations and filtering, including stateful operations. On the other hand: It's the most complex strategy to implement. You'll have to deal with different serialization formats, handle failures, etc. This strategy is recommended for very advanced use cases only. This is not recommended for most users.
#Stream processing engine
Stream processing engine provides a middle ground between writing a dedicated program and using one of the connectors. Engines such as Apache Flink provide rich API for data transformations, enrichment, and filtering; at the same time, they can help you with shared concerns such as fault-tolerance and serialization. However, they often have a non-trivial learning curve. QuestDB offers a connector for Apache Flink. It is the recommended strategy if you are an existing Flink user, and you need to do complex transformations while inserting entries from Kafka to QuestDB.