Insert data

This page shows how to insert data into QuestDB using different programming languages and tools.

InfluxDB Line Protocol is the recommended primary ingestion method in QuestDB and is recommended for high-performance applications.

For transactional data inserts, use the PostgreSQL wire protocol.

For operational (ad-hoc) data ingestion, the Web Console makes it easy to upload CSV files and insert via SQL statements. You can also perform these same actions via the HTTP REST API. For large CSV import (database migrations), use SQL COPY.

In summary, these are the different options:

Here is a summary table comparing the different ways to insert data we support:

ProtocolRecord Insertion ReportingData Insertion Performance
InfluxDB Line ProtocolServer logs; Disconnect on errorBest
CSV upload via HTTP RESTConfigurableVery Good
SQL INSERT statementsTransaction-levelGood
SQL COPY statementsTransaction-levelSuitable for one-off data migration

InfluxDB Line Protocol#

The InfluxDB Line Protocol (ILP) is a text protocol over TCP on port 9009.

It is a one-way protocol to insert data, focusing on simplicity and performance.

This interface is the preferred ingestion method as it provides the following benefits:

  • High-throughput ingestion
  • Robust ingestion from multiple sources into tables with dedicated systems for reducing congestion
  • Configurable commit-lag for out-of-order data via server configuration settings

On the InfluxDB line protocol page, you may find additional details on the message format, ports and authentication.

The Telegraf guide helps you configure a Telegraf agent to collect and send metrics to QuestDB via ILP.


The ILP client libraries provide more user-friendly ILP clients for a growing number of languages.


These examples send a few rows of input. These use client libraries as well as raw TCP socket connections, when a client library is not available.

Python client library docs and repo.

See more examples, including ingesting data from Pandas dataframes.

python3 -m pip install questdb
from questdb.ingress import Sender, IngressError, TimestampNanos
import sys
import datetime
def example(host: str = 'localhost', port: int = 9009):
with Sender(host, port) as sender:
# Record with provided designated timestamp (using the 'at' param)
# Notice the designated timestamp is expected in Nanoseconds,
# but timestamps in other columns are expected in Microseconds.
# The API provides convenient functions
'pair': 'USDGBP',
'type': 'buy'},
'traded_price': 0.83,
'limit_price': 0.84,
'qty': 100,
'traded_ts': datetime.datetime(
2022, 8, 6, 7, 35, 23, 189062,
# If no 'at' param is passed, the server will use its own timestamp.
symbols={'pair': 'EURJPY'},
'traded_price': 135.97,
'qty': 400,
'limit_price': None}) # NULL columns can be passed as None,
# or simply be left out.
# We recommend flushing periodically, for example every few seconds.
# If you don't flush explicitly, the client will flush automatically
# once the buffer is reaches 63KiB and just before the connection
# is closed.
except IngressError as e:
sys.stderr.write(f'Got error: {e}\n')
if __name__ == '__main__':

PostgreSQL wire protocol#

QuestDB also supports the same wire protocol as PostgreSQL, allowing you to connect and query the database with various third-party pre-existing client libraries and tools.

You can connect to TCP port 8812 and use both INSERT and SELECT SQL queries.

PostgreSQL wire protocol is better suited for applications inserting via SQL programmatically as it provides parameterized queries, which avoid SQL injection issues.


InfluxDB Line Protocol is the recommended primary ingestion method in QuestDB. SQL INSERT statements over the PostgreSQL offer feedback and error reporting, but have worse overall performance.

Here are a few examples demonstrating SQL INSERT queries:

Create the table:

psql -h localhost -p 8812 -U admin -d qdb \

Insert row:

psql -h localhost -p 8812 -U admin -d qdb -c "INSERT INTO t1 VALUES('a', 42)"

Query back:

psql -h localhost -p 8812 -U admin -d qdb -c "SELECT * FROM t1"

Note that you can also run psql from Docker without installing the client locally:

docker run -it --rm --network=host -e PGPASSWORD=quest \
postgres psql ....

Web Console#

QuestDB ships with an embedded Web Console running by default on port 9000.

Creating a table and inserting some data
CREATE TABLE takeaway_order (ts TIMESTAMP, id SYMBOL, status SYMBOL)
INSERT INTO takeaway_order VALUES (now(), 'order1', 'placed');
INSERT INTO takeaway_order VALUES (now(), 'order2', 'placed');

SQL statements can be written in the code editor and executed by clicking the Run button. Note that the web console runs a single statement at a time.

For inserting bulk data or migrating data from other databases, see large CSV import.


QuestDB exposes a REST API for compatibility with a wide range of libraries and tools. The REST API is accessible on port 9000 and has the following insert-capable entrypoints:

EntrypointHTTP MethodDescriptionAPI Docs
/impPOSTImport CSV dataReference
/exec?query=..GETRun SQL Query returning JSON result setReference

For details such as content type, query parameters and more, refer to the REST API docs.

/imp: Uploading Tabular Data#


InfluxDB Line Protocol is the recommended primary ingestion method in QuestDB. CSV uploading offers insertion feedback and error reporting, but has worse overall performance.

See /imp's atomicity query parameter to customize behavior on error.

Let's assume you want to upload the following data via the /imp entrypoint:


You can do so via the command line using cURL or programmatically via HTTP APIs in your scripts and applications.

By default, the response is designed to be human-readable. Use the fmt=json query argument to obtain a response in JSON. You can also specify the schema explicitly. See the second example in Python for these features.

This example imports a CSV file with automatic schema detection.

Basic import with table name
curl -F data=@data.csv http://localhost:9000/imp?name=table_name

This example overwrites an existing table and specifies a timestamp format and a designated timestamp column. For more information on the optional parameters to specify timestamp formats, partitioning and renaming tables, see the REST API documentation.

Providing a user-defined schema
curl \
-F schema='[{"name":"ts", "type": "TIMESTAMP", "pattern": "yyyy-MM-dd - HH:mm:ss"}]' \
-F data=@weather.csv 'http://localhost:9000/imp?overwrite=true&timestamp=ts'

/exec: SQL INSERT Query#

The /exec entrypoint takes a SQL query and returns results as JSON.

We can use this for quick SQL inserts too, but note that there's no support for parameterized queries that are necessary to avoid SQL injection issues.


Prefer the PostgreSQL interface if you are generating sql programmatically.

Prefer ILP if you need high-performance inserts.

# Create Table
curl -G \
--data-urlencode "query=CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS trades(name STRING, value INT)" \
# Insert a row
curl -G \
--data-urlencode "query=INSERT INTO trades VALUES('abc', 123456)" \